Isaiah 14 (KJV)
14 For the Lord will have mercy on Jacob, and will yet choose Israel, and set them in their own land: and the strangers shall be joined with them, and they shall cleave to the house of Jacob.
2 And the people shall take them, and bring them to their place: and the house of Israel shall possess them in the land of the Lord for servants and handmaids: and they shall take them captives, whose captives they were; and they shall rule over their oppressors.
3 And it shall come to pass in the day that the Lord shall give thee rest from thy sorrow, and from thy fear, and from the hard bondage wherein thou wast made to serve,
4 That thou shalt take up this proverb against the king of Babylon, and say, How hath the oppressor ceased! the golden city ceased!
5 The Lord hath broken the staff of the wicked, and the sceptre of the rulers.
6 He who smote the people in wrath with a continual stroke, he that ruled the nations in anger, is persecuted, and none hindereth.
7 The whole earth is at rest, and is quiet: they break forth into singing.
8 Yea, the fir trees rejoice at thee, and the cedars of Lebanon, saying, Since thou art laid down, no feller is come up against us.
9 Hell from beneath is moved for thee to meet thee at thy coming: it stirreth up the dead for thee, even all the chief ones of the earth; it hath raised up from their thrones all the kings of the nations.
10 All they shall speak and say unto thee, Art thou also become weak as we? art thou become like unto us?
11 Thy pomp is brought down to the grave, and the noise of thy viols: the worm is spread under thee, and the worms cover thee.
12 How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!
13 For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north:
14 I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High. (Where we get Santa Claus)
15 Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit.
16 They that see thee shall narrowly look upon thee, and consider thee, saying, Is this the man that made the earth to tremble, that did shake kingdoms;
17 That made the world as a wilderness, and destroyed the cities thereof; that opened not the house of his prisoners?
18 All the kings of the nations, even all of them, lie in glory, every one in his own house.
19 But thou art cast out of thy grave like an abominable branch, and as the raiment of those that are slain, thrust through with a sword, that go down to the stones of the pit; as a carcase trodden under feet.
20 Thou shalt not be joined with them in burial, because thou hast destroyed thy land, and slain thy people: the seed of evildoers shall never be renowned.
21 Prepare slaughter for his children for the iniquity of their fathers; that they do not rise, nor possess the land, nor fill the face of the world with cities.
22 For I will rise up against them, saith the Lord of hosts, and cut off from Babylon the name, and remnant, and son, and nephew, saith the Lord.
23 I will also make it a possession for the bittern, and pools of water: and I will sweep it with the besom of destruction, saith the Lord of hosts.
24 The Lord of hosts hath sworn, saying, Surely as I have thought, so shall it come to pass; and as I have purposed, so shall it stand:
25 That I will break the Assyrian in my land, and upon my mountains tread him under foot: then shall his yoke depart from off them, and his burden depart from off their shoulders.
26 This is the purpose that is purposed upon the whole earth: and this is the hand that is stretched out upon all the nations.
27 For the Lord of hosts hath purposed, and who shall disannul it? and his hand is stretched out, and who shall turn it back?
28 In the year that king Ahaz died was this burden.
29 Rejoice not thou, whole Palestina, because the rod of him that smote thee is broken: for out of the serpent's root shall come forth a cockatrice, and his fruit shall be a fiery flying serpent.
30 And the firstborn of the poor shall feed, and the needy shall lie down in safety: and I will kill thy root with famine, and he shall slay thy remnant.
31 Howl, O gate; cry, O city; thou, whole Palestina, art dissolved: for there shall come from the north a smoke, and none shall be alone in his appointed times.
32 What shall one then answer the messengers of the nation? That the Lord hath founded Zion, and the poor of his people shall trust in it.
April 26, 1916
"The Syxes - Picot Agreement"
During World War I, the powerful countries of Great Britain, France and Russia met to decide on the Partition of the Ottoman Empire’s territories after the war had ended. In what was called, "The Syxes - Picot Agreement", April 26th - October 23rd, 1916, in which Mosul (Nineveh) was decided to be zoned as a territory under France’s control.
NOTE: This secret agreement was made public by the new Bolshevik Government of Russia after the revolution (this agreement was to remain top secret and confidential.)
Peace Conference in Paris, France
Three Assyrian groups were scheduled to participate in the Peace Conference in Paris, France; Assyrian delegates from the United States, Iraq and Iran.
The Assyrian group from Iran arrived first, included S. Ganja, L. George and L. Yacoboff, and since Great Britain feared the presence of a group which she can not control, not having much authority in Iran, the British forced the Assyrian delegate of Iran to leave Paris and not participate.
Then the Assyrian delegate from the USA arrived which included: S. Raji, M. Shakour, A. Barsoom, B. Bakous, A. Ablahad, A. K. Yousuf, R. Najeeb, G. Zabouni, S. A. Namiq and Rev. J. E. Werda.
Their demands were basically to establish an Assyrian independent territory including northern Bet Nahren beginning from the lower Zab River, Diyar Bakir and extending to the Armenian mountains and under the protection of the super powers.
Rev. Joel Werda in his petition concluded;
"We have the most conclusive proofs to show that the Assyrians were urged by the official representatives of Great Britain, France and Russia, to enter into the war on the side of the Allies, and were induced into a state of belligerency with the most solemn promises of being given a free state. The Assyrians, therefore, having risked the very existence of their nation, and having made such appalling sacrifices upon the altar of freedom, demand that these promises of the Allied governments now be honorably redeemed."
Great Britain and the US delegates denied the petition explaining that the US president F. Wilson is having strong reserves from any plans to divide Turkey. The Assyrians from the USA returned empty handed.
The Assyrian delegate from Iraq after too many delays by the British authorities was approved to travel on July 21st, but on one condition, to pass by London, England first. There, Surma Khanim, the head of the delegate was kept in London until the conference of France finished its deliberations.
Surma's demands were very realistic which were to allow the Assyrians to return to Hakkarri, basic freedoms, the release of all prisoners and the punishment of the criminals responsible for the atrocities committed against the Assyrians.
April 19, 1920 - Treaty of Sèvres
Between Great Britian, Allies and Turkey
This treaty, signed on August 10, 1920, put the foundations for the new Turkish frontier post World War I. Assyrians were not permitted by Great Britian to participate in these deliberations under the ground rule that the Assyrians were not an equal power with the rest of the participants. But the Assyrian issue was discussed and the scheme was to contain full safeguards for the protection of the Assyro-Chaldeans and other racial or religious minorities under articles 62, 63, 140, 141, 142, 147, 148, 149, and 150 and as a result of this treaty, Mosul (NINEVEH, Assyria) was given to Iraq while France was guaranteed 25% of Mosul (Nineveh)’s oil production.
Article 62 of the Treaty states:
"... this plan must provide complete guarantees as to the protection of the Assyro-Chaldeans and other ethnic or religious minorities in this area. To this end, a commission made up of British, French, Italian, Persian and Kurdish representatives will visit the area so as to determine what adjustments, if any, should be made to the Turkish frontier wherever it coincides with Persian frontier as laid down in this treaty."
November 20, 1922 - Treaty of Lausanne
Between the Allied powers and Turkey
The Treaty of Lausanne, signed on July 24, 1923, took place after Turkey requested that the issue of Mosul (Nineveh) needed to be re-examined again. Assyrians once again were not allowed to participate as Great Britian stood in their way, but again they were promised that their rights will be protected, worth mentioning that Agha Petros, General of the Assyrian Army, attended the opening ceremonies.
The United States stood beside Great Britian in these deliberations as the latter promised 20% of the oil industry business to be awarded to American companies.
Turkey lost its appeal to win Mosul (Nineveh) back based on Great Britian's claims that this region will be saved for the future settlement of the Kurdish and Assyrian people, and no final agreement was reached.
Article 39 of the treaty states:
"There will be no official restriction on any Turkish citizen’s right to use any language he wishes, whether in private, in commercial dealings, in matter of religion, in print or at a public gathering. Regardless of the existence of an official language, appropriate facilities will be provided for any non-Turkish-speaking citizen of Turkey to use his own language before the court."
May 21, 1924 - The Constantinople Conference
Between Great Britian and Turkey
The Assyrians were told that Britain is fighting their case for them and that there is no need for them to attend. A letter on behalf of the Assyrians and their settlement was written under the direction of Sir Henry Conway Dobbs, the British High Commissioner in Iraq, under "Statement of Proposals for the Settlement of the Assyrian People in Iraq", in that regard.
The government of Turkey, claimed that Mosul (Nineveh) is part of Turkey and Fet’hi Beg declared that the Assyrians, who he referred to them as Nestorians, are welcomed to live in their previous lands in Turkey where they will find freedom. Sir Percy Cox, stated that Mosul (Nineveh) belongs to Iraq and that the Christian Assyrians need protection from Turkey.
This was part of his statement;
" ...His Majesty’s Government has decided to endeavor to secure a good treaty frontier, which will at the same time admit of the establishment of the Assyrians in a compact community within the limits of the territory in respect of which His Majesty’s Government hold a mandate under the authority of the League of Nations, if not in every case in their ancestral habitation, at all events in suitable adjacent districts. This policy for the settlement of the Assyrians has the full sympathy and support of the Iraqi Government, which is prepared for its part, to give the necessary cooperation for giving effect thereto."
No agreement was reached at the end. Turkey then massed its troops on the border to occupy the Mosul (Nineveh) Province by force. The Assyrian Levy Force of 2000 were sent north to protect Iraq, since the Iraqi army at this time was unfit to undertake such task. The Assyrian force was largely responsible for the annexation of Mosul (Nineveh) to Iraq rather than to Turkey, as an official of the League of Nations stated.
August 6, 1924
Britian's Request to League of Nations
Britain requested from the League of Nations to look into the issue of the borders between Iraq and Turkey. And a Frontiers Commission was established to look into the matter on Oct. 21, 1924
June 16, 1925
Recommendation of League of Nations
The Commission presented its findings and suggested the importance of protecting the Assyrians if they were to return to Turkey, their freedom, reimbursements for all their loses during the Great War and the full authority of the Patriarch, Mar Eshai Shimun, over his people.
Recommendations were not approved upon. And it was finally recommended that the issue should be referred to the Permanent Court of International Justice in The Hague, an integral part of the charter of the League of Nations which was later replaced by the International Court of Justice after the birth of the United Nations.
September, 1925 - "The Hague"
The Permanent Court of International Justice
Took over the disputed border line issue and in Dec. 1925, adopted a resolution which refused the idea of the Assyrians return to Hakkarri and gave that region to Turkey, while giving Mosul (Nineveh) to Iraq and settling on a border line almost matching the same status quo line which was called the Brussel Line and recommended the continuation of the British mandate on Iraq another 25 years to safeguard the Assyrian interests.
June 5, 1926
Treaty between Britian and Turkey
Treaty between Britain and Turkey was signed settling the issue of the borders and Mosul (Nineveh) province.
Hence Britain gained possession of Mosul (Nineveh)’s rich oil fields and set out to deny the rights of the Assyrians.
In July 1927, Captain Fowraker, a Levy officer who spoke Assyrian fluently, became incharge of the settlement issue. He noticed that Assyrians were scattered all over north of Iraq, in contradiction to the League of Nation’s decision to settle the Assyrians in a "Homogeneous Enclave".
November 11, 1927
Human Rights of Assyrians
The Assyrians continued to protest about their mistreatment and continued to send letters to the League of Nations which requested a report from both of the governments of Britain and Iraq about the situation. The Permanent Court of International Justice in The Hague, did not accept the reports of Britain and Iraq and requested from both countries to fulfill their obligations towards the Assyrians.
November 13, 1928
British Treaties and Assyrian Petitions
Britain dropped the earlier established recommendations by the Mandate Commission and declared that those recommendations should be directed to the Turkish Government and not the Iraqi government, since Hikkarri is the original homeland of the Assyrians and those who escaped have no intentions to return to Turkey. Hence, they should occupy whatever land the Iraqi government has provided for them.
Meanwhile, the Turkish Council-General in Baghdad stated earlier on June 25, 1928;
"The Turkish Amnesty Law did not cover the Assyrians, who would not be permitted in any circumstances to enter Turkey; And that any Assyrian who attempted to enter Turkey would be punished."
Several treaties were signed and ratified between Britain and Iraq in the next two years in what seemed to be Britain’s preparations to clear the way for Iraq to enter the League of Nations.
Three petitions were received by the Mandate Commission stressing the fears of the Assyrians regarding the termination of the Mandate; they were dated in Sept. 1931, Oct. 20, 1931 and Oct. 23, 1931. One of these was rejected by Sir Francis Humphrys on the grounds that it was submitted by Captain Rassam (Hermiz Rassam’s son) who was not qualified to represent the Assyrians even though it was given to him by the Assyrian Patriarch but he, Humphrys, still pledged the ‘moral responsibility’ of Great Britain to the future attitude of the Iraqi government.
The Oct. 23, 1931 petition was submitted by His Holiness Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII, in Mosul (Nineveh), asking for permission to allow the Assyrians to leave Iraq before the end of the Mandate since it would be impossible for the Assyrians to live in Iraq. This decision was reached at with the agreement of all the Assyrian leaders and when responses to this petition were delayed, the Assyrians decided to take action and planned for a general ‘cessation of service’ by all the Levies.
The Mandate Commission reviewed the Assyrian petition and was still not satisfied with Britain and Iraq’s assurances of protection of Minorities. Worth mentioning here that Sir Humphrys was accused by his own fellow British officials to fabricate lies in regards to the Iraqi government’s sentiments about the Assyrians.
The Mandate Commission gave its recommendations, stating that they are concerned about the Christians, and accordingly, average people were given the right to submit any petitions to the League of Nations, directly, in the future.
In partial compliance with requests of the petition, the Iraqi government set up a further land-finding committee. It discovered but little land both cultivable and available. In fact, they found malaria-ridden, swampy lands, and in their usual obnoxious style, recommended expenditure on an irrigation scheme to produce more. Hundreds upon hundreds of Assyrians died with malaria in those lands.
The Council of the League of Nations accepted the recommendations and Iraq issued a declaration guaranteeing the protection of minorities on May 30, 1932.
Accordingly Iraq was accepted in the League of Nations on October 3, 1932.
December 5, 1932
Mar Eshai Shimun in Geneva
The Assyrian national question was taken to Geneva by the Assyrian Patriarch, His Holiness Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII again when he addressed the Permanent Mandate Commission meeting and urged the Council to fulfill its obligations toward the Assyrian Nation. The League yet again granted the Assyrians their rights of homogenous community in Iraq with a local autonomy.
This was discussed again in Dec. 15th, 1932.
The Assyrians are Massacred
The Nestorian Patriarch Mar Eshai Shimun, Patriarch of the Assyrians, who has been under detention for some time for having declined to sign a declaration of loyalty to King Faisal and agree not to thwart the scheme of the League of Nations for the settlement of the Assyrians, was deported by the order of the government today (August 18, 1933) and deprived of Iraqi nationality.
The British air officer commanding in Iraq was present at the Hinaidi airdrome when Mar Shimun left in a British machine for Jerusalem en route to Cyprus...."
The Argus Newspaper (published in Melborne, Australia)
August 21, 1933
"In accordance with the Iraq government's deportation order, the Patriarch Mar Shimun left today (August 19, 1933) in a Royal Air Force airplane, by way of Palestine, for Cyprus, where his father and brother have also been given asylum..."
The Sydney Morning Herald
August 21, 1933
"The press reports quoted above say that His Holiness left Hinaidi airdrome in a British aircraft for Cyprus by way of Palestine. But, did the British Royal Air Force plane fly His Holiness (and those with Him) direct to Cyprus after stopping in Palestine? Material dug up by Romeo Hanna tells us it did not. It tells that His Holiness disembarked in Palestine and was flown to Cyprus in another British RAF machine several days later. What we Assyrians of Australia find interesting about the material is that this second British RAF machine was piloted by an Australian pilot who at the time was stationed in Basra."
Mar Eshai Shimun in Geneva with Yousuf Malik
After the Simele massacre the Council of the League of Nations was absolutely sure that the Assyrian issue was still an unsolved problem. The Assyrian Patriarch requested the League to form an Assyrian and Kurdish enclave in the north of the province of Mosul (Nineveh) under a special administration. The Patriarch reminded the Council about such plan which was originally suggested by Lord Curzon, the British Foreign Minister, on Dec. 17, 1919. In Iraq Rashid Ali Al-Gailani, the Iraqi Prime Minister, announced that the Assyrians should find a new home outside Iraq and promised that the Iraqi government is willing to make very generous contributions to cover any expenses of such settlement. On Oct. 13, 1933, the League of Nations appointed a committee of six of its members to look into this possibility. On Oct. 24, the Assyrians submitted another petition by Yousuf Malik, an Assyrian Nationalist from Iraq who was exiled to Lebanon and who moved between Cypress, Beirut and Damascus exposing what was going on inside Iraq and the British games. This petition gives details to a lot of cases of oppression against the Assyrians in Iraq and details on hardships from government officials and the facts about the Semele massacre.
From October 1933 to June of 1935 the committee of six looked into many options, they covered Brazil, British Guiana, Niger (in Africa) and they all failed. A further suggestion that the British Red Cross might send a relief party to Mosul (Nineveh) was also objected to, apparently on the grounds that this would discourage the activities of the Iraqi Crescent, which has not carried out any relief work among the Assyrians. In Sept. 1935, the plan of settling of some of the Assyrians in the Khabour / Ghab areas in Syria was approved. History shows that the plan was never followed up with and it has failed.
Things did not change for the Assyrians in Iraq until the outbreak of World War II, when the Iraqis revolted under Rashid Ali Al-Gailani who sided himself with Germany and wanted to force the British out of Iraq completely. The faith of the British existence in Iraq hanged in the hands of the 1500 Assyrian Levis ability to hold the British Air Force Base in Habbaniya against the Rebels of over 60,000 Arab tribesmen and regular troops who surrounded the base.
The Battle of Habbaniya is well described in the book, "The Golden Carpet" by Somerset De Chair, a British intelligence officer served in Iraq during W.W.II. The Assyrians have saved Iraq from falling in Germany’s hands.
May 7, 1945 - United Nations
Mar Eshai Shimun in San Francisco
The United Nations was born in San Francisco (replacing the League of Nations).
The Assyrian Patriarch, Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII, was there to present the Assyrian petition (Assyrian National Petition) to the new world body of peace and was accompanied by two members of the Assyrian National Federation. In this petition the Assyrian tragedy was explained from World War I until the end of World War II.
Several petitions from the Patriarch in 1945 and 1946 were sent to the Secretary General of the United Nations to look into the Assyrian National Question. A letter from the UN General Secretary # 1100-1-4/MEJ dated Oct. 7, 1946 was received by Mar Shimun stating that he has referred the Patriarch’s petition to the Commission on Human Rights.
March 13, 1947 - Petition to the UN General Secretary about the Assyrian Massacres in Iran.
A petition concerning the Assyrian Massacres in Iran was filed again by Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII, Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East. He struggled for over a half century at the League of Nations, then the United Nations, all in vain. The ‘new order’ would not hear of it, this was a new world, the nations of the Axis Powers had to be forgiven and appeased, the Arabs had to be rewarded so that they could suppress their people and allow cheap oil to flow to the West. This was no time to talk about the sacrifices of the Assyrian people. As for human rights, the Allies were embarrassed to consider that such a small nation-church had been their "Smallest Ally".
The Assyrian Question (Dr. Dadisho)
The Assyrians and the Assyrian Question (Matfiev)
The Death of a Nation (Yohannan)
The First Civilization (Alexander)
The Flickering Light of Asia (Werda)
The Tragedy of the Assyrians (Stafford)
Yousif Malik (Nathir)